Our artistic visions have to work within the technology available to us, but this inspires innovation in both areas.
Nature Outlooks Structure A structure is made up of interrelated parts functioning as an orderly whole.
It is synonymous to the definition of a system. It implies that a force is present to hold all these parts together. There are four kinds of forces in nature: The gravitational force holds together massive objects in various astronomical systems and makes us earthbound.
The electromagnetic force operates on objects carrying electrical charges. The weak force, which is responsible for beta decay of the nucleus, operates on microscopic objects in short range. The strong force, which holds the nucleons together in the nucleus, is stronger than the weak force.
While the gravitational and electromagnetic forces are long range, the weak and strong forces are dominant in the realm of nuclei and even smaller particles.
Note that the origin of friction, viscosity, elasticity, chemical bonding is electro- magnetic in nature. The internal structure of matter shields the electromagnetic force resulting in a residual force, which is weaker than the original.
Similar shielding also occurs in the atomic nuclei resulting in a residual nuclear force. The various structures in the universe are somewhat like a Russian doll.
A larger size member would contain smaller ones in decreasing sizes each with its special properties. However, while the relationship is "one to one" within the Russian doll, the hierarchical relationship is "one to many" in the cosmos. For example, the cosmos contains many superclustersa supercluster contains many clusters of galaxiesa cluster of galaxies contains many galaxiesand so on.
The Russian doll is just a special case of the general hierarchical organization. Evolution Evolution is the gradual development of a system from one form to another. For astronomical and biological systems it takes billions and millions of years respectively for their development into the present form.
The history of modern science is simply too short to record the changes to these systems. However, with the aid of advanced observational technology, the evolutionary history of the cosmos can be reconstructed from astronomical objects in different stages of development.
For the biological evolution, the fossil records and DNA comparison offer some helps to trace the evolution.
In the absence of direct evidence, theory often offers some clues. There is no definitive answer to the cause of formation of orderly or complex structure from a seemingly homogenous environment.
One scenario suggests that the initial requirement is the creation of fluctuation to move away from an equilibrium state. Such an open system would exchange matter and energy with its surrounding. Under certain circumstances, the open system reaches a steady state in which it is far from equilibrium and maintains that way as long as there is enough energy to support this naturally "improbable" arrangement.
Living organism returns to dust an equilibrium state when there is no food energy to support the chemical activities within the body. Observation Of the five senses in human to receive information about our environment, the sense of sight is the most important.
Seventy percent of our sense receptors are devoted to the detection of light. This is not surprising in view of the dominant influence of Sunlight in our life. However, Sunlight occupies only a very small part of the electromagnetic spectrum which could shed information on various objects over the entire range of the spectrum.
It was only in the last hundred years that we were able to construct detectors for the retrieval of such information. Meanwhile we have also built telescopes to view distant objects and microscopes for investigating the very small.Data from flight projects are transformed into knowledge through analysis and synthesis-research that is funded both by R&A and by the data analysis (DA) portion of mission operations and data analysis (MO&DA) programs.
eWEEK delivers breaking tech news, the latest IT trends, and in-depth analysis daily. For more than 30 years, eWEEK has kept tech professionals ahead of the IT curve. Advertisement Analysis - Advertisement Analysis An analysis of the signs and symbols used in Patek Philippe Geneve's "Begin your own tradition" advert.
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is a Web graphics language. SVG defines markup and APIs for creating static or dynamic images, capable of interactivity and animation, including various graphical effects.
It can be styled with CSS, and combined with HTML. This document provides an introduction to SVG. The scientific tools include measurement, analysis, inference, logic, hypotheses, and theories.
Since Isaac Newton invented calculus in the s, the development of differential equation for various physical systems has become a powerful tool for theoretical physicists who are very creative in modeling. For example, the entire galaxy is: considered to be a particle in cosmological model.
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