Costa and Bena Kallick Chapter Learning Through Reflection by Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick A defining condition of being human is that we have to understand the meaning of our experience.
Intelligence quotient and Intelligence The definitions of intelligence are controversial since at least 70 definitions have been found among diverse fields of research. From " Mainstream Science on Intelligence "an op-ed statement in the Comparing reflective models Street Journal signed by fifty-two researchers out of total invited to sign.
It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts.
Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do. Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought.
Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena.
Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, and none commands universal assent.
Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions. There are several ways to more specifically define intelligence.
In some cases, intelligence may include traits such as creativitypersonalitycharacterknowledgeor wisdom. However, some psychologists prefer not to include these traits in the definition of intelligence.
IQ is a summary index, calculated by testing individuals' abilities in a variety of tasks and producing a composite score to represent overall ability, e. It is used to predict educational outcomes and other variables of interest. Others have attempted to measure intelligence indirectly by looking at individuals' or group's educational attainment, although this risks bias from other demographic factors, such as ageincomegender and cultural background, all of which can affect educational attainment.
InHoward Gardner proposed the theory of multiple intelligenceswhich broadens the conventional definition of intelligence, to include logicallinguisticspatialmusicalkinestheticnaturalist, intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences.
ReligionIrreligionReligiosityand Psychology of religion The term religiosity refers to degrees of religious behaviour, belief, or spirituality. The measurement of religiosity is hampered by the difficulties involved in defining what is meant by the term.
When religiosity is measured, it is important to specify which aspects of religiosity are referred to. The beliefs, affiliations, and behaviors of any individual are complex activities that have many sources including culture.
As examples of religious incongruence he notes, "Observant Jews may not believe what they say in their Sabbath prayers. Christian ministers may not believe in God. According to anthropologist Jack David Eller, "atheism is quite a common position, even within religion" and that "surprisingly, atheism is not the opposite or lack, let alone the enemy, of religion but is the most common form of religion.
Nations and intelligence In a meta-analysis of 63 studies, led by Professor Miron Zuckerman, a correlation of. They note limitations on this since viewing intrinsic religiosity as being about religious beliefs represents American Protestantism more than Judaism or Catholicism, both of which see behavior as just as important as religious beliefs.
They also noted that the available data did not allow adequate consideration of the role of religion type and of culture in assessing the relationship between religion and intelligence.
They noted, "Clearly, the present results are limited to Western societies. First, intelligent people are less likely to conform and, thus, are more likely to resist religious dogma, however this theory was contradicted in mostly atheist societies such as the Scandinavian populations, where the religiosity-IQ relationship still existed.
Second, intelligent people tend to adopt an analytic as opposed to intuitive thinking style, which has been shown to undermine religious beliefs. Third, Intelligent people may have less need for religious beliefs and practices, as some of the functions of religiosity can be given by intelligence instead.
Such functions include the presentation of a sense that the world is orderly and predictable, a sense of personal control and self-regulation and a sense of enhancing self-esteem and belongingness. For example, the negative intelligence—religiosity association was insignificant with samples using men, pre-college participants, and taking into account grade point average.
When other variables like education and quality of human conditions were taken into account, positive relation between IQ and disbelief in God was reduced. As such, the reduction of significance in the negative correlation likely reflected a sample anomaly.
They also did observe that the "weak but significant" correlation of. The authors also investigated the link between belief in a god and average national IQs in countries. The authors reported a correlation of 0.FreeTrack is a general-purpose optical motion tracking application for Microsoft Windows, released under the GNU General Public License, that can be used with common inexpensive grupobittia.com primary focus is head tracking with uses in virtual reality, simulation, video games, 3D modeling, computer aided design and general hands-free computing to improve computer accessibility.
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Order now The work of Boud, Keogh and Walker (), addressed emotions and reduced Dewey’s five phases to three. That last line ouch!
I have been blogging for ten years.
During the early years I tried to monitize my blog several times, but quickly realized that the few hours a week I devoted to writing would be swallowed up in logistics dealing with advertisers and trying to make them happy. Models of Reflection. If Reflective Practice is to become anything more than random navel gazing, it is advisable that the reflective (teaching) practitioner employs a particular process or model.