In order to make the management of change easier a lot of change management models have been developed that all have their pros and cons. However, some models are widely accepted and popular in the industry like the following three:
This article was written on 23 Marand is filled under Volume 6 No 1. The novice to expert model was featured in my editorial in our last issue, Volume 5, Number 4. He is also lauded as the originator of social psychology, action research, as well as organizational development.
Stage Unfreezing The first stage involves finding a method of making it possible for people to let go of an old pattern that was counterproductive in some way. This is the stage where the desire to change occurs, or at least the recognition that change is needed.
An example is moving from a paper based documentation system to an electronic system, in an organization where paper trails have become unmanageable and archaic.
Unfreezing the present Forces that maintain current behavior are reduced through analysis of the current situation.
Imperatives for change are realized through dialogue and re-educational activities such as team building, personal development, and brain-storming.
The more transparent and inclusive the process is, the more readily people move through the unfreezing stage. Moving to a new level or Change The second stage involves a process of change—in thoughts, feelings, behavior, or all three, that is in some way more liberating or more productive than doing things the old way.
During this stage, the people involved change target group are convinced that the new way is better than the old. Having analyzed the present situation, new structures and processes are put in place to achieve the desired improvements.
This is the most time-consuming, costly, yet productive stage as far as tangible results go. Without some process of refreezing, it is easy to backslide into the old ways of doing things. Rewards, support, and champion leadership continue to be important through this stage, which is essentially ongoing until the next major change is needed.
This is done by establishing supportive mechanisms such as policies, rewards, ongoing support, and a solid orientation to the new system for incoming personnel. Lewin assumed that in any situation there are both driving and restraining forces that influence any change that may occur.
These forces can be positive, urging us toward a behavior, or negative, propelling us away from a beneficial behavior as illustrated in Figure 1. Lewin's Force Field Analysis Driving Forces Driving forces are forces that influence a situation, pushing in a particular direction: In terms of improving productivity in a work group, pressure from a supervisor, incentives, frustration with the current way of doing things such as paper documentation and competitive or social demands are examples of potential driving forces.
Restraining Forces Restraining forces are forces that act to restrain or decrease the driving forces — they make it difficult to move a change forward. Apathy, prohibitive cost, hostility, technology illiteracy and poor maintenance of equipment are examples of restraining forces which can inhibit change and may restrict productivity.
Equilibrium Equilibrium is the status quo or the present level of productivity, and can be disrupted or fortified by changes in the relationship between the driving and the restraining forces.
Equilibrium is reached when the sum of the driving forces equals the sum of the restraining forces. So before a change occurs, the force field is in equilibrium between forces favourable to change and those resisting it.
Lewin spoke about the existence of a quasi-stationary social equilibrium, which needed to be shifted during the change process, but then reestablished at a new level once the change had been refrozen.
For change to happen the status quo, or equilibrium must be upset — either by adding conditions favorable to the change or by reducing resisting forces.
Kurt Lewin proposed that whenever driving forces are stronger than restraining forces, the status quo or equilibrium will change. Successful change is achieved by either strengthening the driving forces or weakening the restraining forces.
The goal of the change agent s is to support the driving forces to move beyond equilibrium and outweigh the impact of any restraining forces. This provides support in moving through the unfreezing — changing — refreezing stages of change.Kurt Lewin developed a three stage theory of change commonly referred to as Unfreeze, Change, Freeze (or Refreeze).
A lot of OD practioners seem to just love this model, and can take it to the deepest levels of discussion and application.
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the most prominent models for understanding organisational change. Whatever form change takes and whatever the required outcomes of any change initiative, managers responsible for implementing change must address the management issues at either an individual. Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Analysis attempts to explain how the process of change works by diagnosing the driving and the restraining forces that lead to organizational change.
One side of the model represents the driving forces, and the other side represents the restraining forces. 🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes.
This is a review of the Lewin and Cotter change models. We argue that one is really an elaboration of the other and have chosen Lewin's model because it is easier fr students to remember.