Pakistan[ edit ] Fast food In Pakistan varies. In addition to the international chains, in local cuisine people in Pakistan like to have biryanibun kebabsNiharikebab rolls etc. There are also local chains like Teremok specializing in Russian cuisine or having elements of it added into their menu.
Bulk properties[ edit ] Thorium is a moderately softparamagneticbright silvery radioactive actinide metal.
In the periodic tableit lies to the right of actiniumto the left of protactiniumand below cerium. Pure thorium is very ductile and, as normal for metals, can be cold-rolledswagedand drawn.
Aluminium 's is At the start of period 7from francium to thorium, the melting points of the elements increase as in other periodsbecause the number of delocalised electrons each atom contributes increases Stp of fast food chain one in francium to four in thorium, leading to greater attraction between these electrons and the metal ions as their charge increases from one to four.
After thorium, there is a new downward trend in melting points from thorium to plutoniumwhere the number of f electrons increases from about 0.
The major impurity is usually thorium dioxide ThO2 ; even the purest thorium specimens usually contain about a tenth of a percent of the dioxide. Addition of small proportions of thorium improves the mechanical strength of magnesiumand thorium-aluminium alloys have been considered as a way to store thorium in proposed future thorium nuclear reactors.
Thorium forms eutectic mixtures with chromium and uranium, and it is completely miscible in both solid and liquid states with its lighter congener cerium.
Isotopes of thorium All but two elements up to bismuth element 83 have an isotope that is practically stable for all purposes "classically stable"with the exceptions being technetium and promethium elements 43 and All elements from polonium element 84 onward are measurably radioactive.
Four-fifths of the thorium present at Earth's formation has survived to the present. It is one of only three radioactive elements along with protactinium and uranium that occur in large enough quantities on Earth for a standard atomic weight to be determined. This chain of consecutive alpha and beta decays begins with the decay of Th to Ra and terminates at Pb.
All of these isotopes occur in nature as trace radioisotopes due to their presence in the decay chains of Th, U, U, and Np: All of the remaining thorium isotopes have half-lives that are less than thirty days and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than ten minutes.
Uranium ores with low thorium concentrations can be purified to produce gram-sized thorium samples of which over a quarter is the Th isotope, since Th is one of the daughters of U. This is so low that when it undergoes isomeric transitionthe emitted gamma radiation is in the ultraviolet range.
Uranium—thorium dating is commonly used to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials such as speleothem or coralbecause uranium is more soluble in water than thorium and protactinium, which are selectively precipitated into ocean-floor sedimentswhere their ratios are measured.
The scheme has a range of several hundred thousand years. Compounds of thorium A thorium atom has 90 electrons, of which four are valence electrons. Three atomic orbitals are theoretically available for the valence electrons to occupy: This is due to relativistic effectswhich become stronger near the bottom of the periodic table, specifically the relativistic spin—orbit interaction.
Thorium is much more similar to the transition metals zirconium and hafnium than to cerium in its ionisation energies and redox potentials, and hence also in its chemistry: This was first realised inwhen it was pointed out that a hypothetical metallic state of thorium that had the [Rn]6d27s2 configuration with the 5f orbitals above the Fermi level should be hexagonal close packed like the group 4 elements titanium, zirconium, and hafnium, and not face-centred cubic as it actually is.
The actual crystal structure can only be explained when the 5f states are invoked, proving that thorium, and not protactinium, acts as the first actinide metallurgically. In bulk, the reaction of pure thorium with air is slow, although corrosion may occur after several months; most thorium samples are contaminated with varying degrees of the dioxide, which greatly accelerates corrosion.
Thorium germanides are also known.
Thorium nitrate pentahydrate was the first known example of coordination number 11, the oxalate tetrahydrate has coordination number 10, and the borohydride first prepared in the Manhattan Project has coordination number grupobittia.com - India’s largest Online MBA Management Project Download for Students and Professionals.
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Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number Thorium is silvery and tarnishes black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide; it is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting grupobittia.comm is an electropositive actinide whose chemistry is dominated by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive and can ignite in air when.
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